Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Plastic pipes are being used in different types of buildings and constructions for plumbing
In the case of PVC, the modulus or the connection between stress and strain needs to be examined in conjunction with the rate or duration of loading as well as the temperature
The display of data in the form of a curve showing strain vs time at a constant tension is considered to be standard
In order to depict the full picture, a specific temperature must be applied, and then a series of curves must be drawn to indicate various stress levels
It is possible to compute a modulus for any combination of stress, strain, and time; when done so, the result is typically referred to as the creep modulus
These curves are in use in a variety of design situations, such as when designing for the short-term and long-term transverse stress of pipes
PVC-O is approximately 24% more rigid than normal PVC-U under comparable conditions in the orientated direction, as determined by research carried out in both England and Australia
This can be translated to mean that PVC-O has a higher modulus
Based on the findings of earlier research, it would indicate that there is no major change in the axial orientation

Temperatures That Are Above Average
Ratings of Pressure at Extremely High Temperatures

PVC’s reference temperature for its mechanical characteristics is 20 degrees Celsius
As the temperature rises, thermoplastics often become more ductile and less strong; hence, the stresses introduced during the design process need to be modified correspondingly


Changes in dimension that occur in plastics goods as a result of “material memory” are referred to as “reversion,” and this phrase describes these changes

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Plastic goods “remember” their first produced shape, and if they are subsequently distorted, they will return to their first shape when heated
This is because plastics are a thermoplastic material
In truth, reversion occurs at all temperatures; however, when the extrusion process is of a high enough quality, it is of no practical significance in plain pipe at temperatures below 60 degrees Celsius and in PVC-O pipe at temperatures below 50 degrees Celsius
It has been extensively explored and proven that plastics are susceptible to “weathering,” also known as surface degradation caused by radiant energy in conjunction with the natural elements
Polymeric materials, like PVC, experience changes in their atomic and molecular structures as a result of exposure to UV radiation from the sun
Inhibitors and reflectants are typically integrated into the material, which confines the process to acting just on the material’s surface
Under severe weathering conditions, you will notice a loss of sheen as well as discoloration
The processes require an input of energy and will not be able to continue if the material is insulated in any way, such as by pipes buried underground
In a purely pragmatic sense, the bulk material is unaffected, and the results of primary testing, such as tensile strength and modulus, will remain unchanged
Microscopic disturbances on a worn surface, however, have the potential to induce fracture under situations of severe local stress, such as impact on the outside surface
As a result, the impact strength will demonstrate a drop when it is tested

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Different types of plastic pipes

Vinidex ensures that all of their PVC pipes are equipped with protection devices that will shield them from potentially harmful effects for the duration of typical storage and installation times
When storing something for longer than a year, and especially if the installation in question places a premium on impact resistance, it is possible that additional protection may be taken into consideration as a best practice
This can be accomplished either by storing the material below ground or by capping the pipe stacks with a suitable material like hessian
It is important to ensure that there is adequate ventilation and to prevent the accumulation of heat
The usage of black plastic sheeting is not recommended
An application of PVA paint in shades of white or pastel can serve as a protective coating for above-ground pressure pipe installations
Simply washing with soap to remove any oil or grime will be sufficient to provide satisfactory adhesion results

Material Ageing

PVC does not see a significant reduction in its final strength as it ages
Short-term testing often reveals a modest improvement in the material’s ultimate tensile strength
It is essential to understand that the stress regression line does not represent a gradual weakening of the material over time
This means that a pipe that has been subjected to constant pressure for a number of years will still exhibit the same short-term ultimate burst pressure as a pipe that has just been manufactured

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

The structure of the material does, however, alter with time as a result of the passage of time
The “free volume” in the matrix shrinks as a result of an increase in the number of cross-links that exist between the molecules
This causes some shifts in the mechanical characteristics, including the following:

A little improvement in the material’s ultimate tensile strength
An considerable rise in the amount of yield stress
A rise in modulus in response to increased strain levels

In general, it seems like these adjustments will be advantageous going forward
The reaction of the material, however, is altered when it is subjected to high stress levels
Specifically, local yielding at stress concentrators is impeded, and the strain capability of the article is diminished
A fracture of the brittle kind is more likely to take place, and one can also detect a general weakening of the material’s resistance to impact
The rate at which these transformations take place accelerates dramatically right after the formation of the entity, but then gradually decreases as time goes on
When the product is finally put into use, the effects are hardly observable at all, unless perhaps over the extremely long term

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

The use of heat therapy at 60 degrees Celsius for eighteen hours can simulate the effects of aging
PVC-O passes through this ageing process during the orienting process, and as a result, its properties are comparable to those of a completely aged material, although having a much increased ultimate strength

Abrasion Resistance

In most cases, plastics exhibit outstanding performance when subjected to abrasive conditions
The low elastic modulus and high coefficient of friction are the primary features responsible for this phenomenon
Because of this, the material is able to “give,” and the particles prefer to skid across the surface rather than abrade it
Teflon, nylon, and polyurethanes are three examples of well-known low-friction materials that exhibit exceptional qualities
However, economics play a significant role, and PVC demonstrates great performance when compared to other materials in terms of wear rate and unit cost
Because of the complexity of the factors that determine abrasion, it can be challenging to extrapolate test results to real-world scenarios
The abrasion resistance of a variety of pipe products was evaluated by the Institute for Hydromechanic and Hydraulic Structures of the Technical University of Darmstadt in West Germany

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Plastic pipes used in plumbing

Plastic is the best material for pipes to be used in in plumbing
Polyvinyl Chloride, sometimes known as vinyl, is a thermoplastic material that has a high breaking strength and is used in a broad variety of applications
Some examples include pipes, medical equipment, and the insulation of wires and cables
It is the synthetic plastic polymer that is created the third most frequently all over the world
What exactly is PVC, then? What exactly does it consist of? How should we handle it? Find out specific technical facts regarding Polyvinyl Chloride and the properties it possesses

What exactly is polyvinyl chloride, though?
The Most Common Types of PVC
How is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) made?
PVC Polymer Characteristics That Are Most Important Enhancing PVC’s Properties Through the Use of Additives
Performing Operations on Vinyl Plastic
Recycling Initiatives in the PVC Industry Concerns Regarding the Toxicity of PVC and Its Recyclability Bio-based PVC Product Developments
Important Software Programs
Important Attributes
Suppliers \ Brands
What exactly is PVC, often known as polyvinyl chloride?

Polyvinyl Chloride, also known as vinyl, is a thermoplastic polymer that is both inexpensive and versatile

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

It is utilized extensively in the building and construction industry for the production of door and window profiles, pipes (both for drinking water and wastewater), insulation for wires and cables, medical devices, and many other things
After polyethylene and polypropylene, it is the thermoplastic substance that has the third greatest volume market share in the globe
It is a solid material that can be found in the form of powder or granules and is white in color
PVC is currently replacing conventional construction materials in a variety of applications due to its varied features, such as being lightweight, durable, low cost, and easy to process
These traditional building materials include wood, metal, concrete, rubber, ceramics, and more
The Most Common Types of PVC Flexible and rigid forms of polyvinyl chloride are the two primary distribution channels for this material
However, there are even more varieties, such as CPVC, PVC-O, and PVC-M
Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1
35 g/cm3): Plasticized or flexible PVC is created by adding suitable plasticizers to PVC, which lowers the crystallinity of the PVC
Flexible PVC has a density of 1
35 g/cm3
These plasticizers perform the function of lubricants which results in a plastic that is considerably more transparent and flexible
This particular variety of PVC is also referred to as PVC-P in some circles
Rigid PVC is a cost-effective plastic that is stiff and has a high resistance to impact, water, weather, chemicals, and corrosive conditions

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Its density ranges from 1
3 to 1
45 grams per cubic centimeter
This particular variety of PVC is sometimes referred to as UPVC, PVC-U, and uPVC
The chlorination of PVC resin is the first step in the production of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, also known as perchlorovinyl
The presence of a high concentration of chlorine results in increased durability, chemical stability, and resistance to flame
CPVC is resistant to a wider range of temperatures than other plastics
The formation of molecularly oriented PVC, also known as PVC-O, involves rearranging the amorphous structure of PVC-U into a layered structure
PVC that has been orientated in both directions offers improved physical qualities (stiffness, fatigue resistance, lightweight, etc
PVC-M, also known as modified PVC, is an alloy of PVC that is produced by the addition of modifying chemicals
This results in increased toughness as well as improved impact qualities
The chlorine concentration of CPVC is increased from 56% to around 66% throughout the manufacturing process
This is accomplished by chlorinating PVC polymer
PVC that has been chlorinated has lower forces of attraction between the molecular chains than unchlorinated PVC
CPVC is essentially an amorphous material as well
Above its glass transition temperature, also known as Tg, CPVC can be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC can due to the combination of these two factors
Pipe (436), moldings (376), and sheet are all made of CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC that are designed for use in high temperatures
How is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) made? The production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) begins with the chlorination of ethylene and continues with the pyrolysis of the ethylene dichloride (EDC) that is produced in a cracking unit
The polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer results in the production of PVC, whose glass transition temperature ranges from 70 to 80 degrees Celsius (VCM)

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Plumbing plastic pipes

In order to make the plastic pipes ready to use for plumbing these procedures must be taken
Process known as suspension PVC (S-PVC) The monomer together with the polymerization initiator and any other additions are put into a reactor that can withstand high pressure
Continuous mixing is performed on the contents of the reaction vessel in order to preserve the suspension and guarantee that the PVC resin particles are all of the same size
The typical particle size range for suspension polymerized PVC is between 50 and 250 micrometers, with a mean size of 100 to 150 micrometers
S-PVC grades are manufactured to fulfill a comprehensive variety of criteria, such as strong plasticizer absorption for flexible product applications or high bulk density and good powder flow requirements for rigid extrusion applications

 Different types of plastic pipes used in plumbing

Eighty percent of the world’s PVC is made by a process called suspension polymerization
Bulk or Emulsion Process for Polyvinyl Chloride (E-PVC) During this step of the process, surfactants, also known as soaps, are utilized in order to facilitate the dispersion of the vinyl chloride monomer in water
The monomer is shielded by the soap while it is encapsulated within the micelles of the soap, and the polymerization process is started by water-soluble initiators
The primary particles are solid, smooth-surfaced spheres that are aggregated into irregularly shaped aggregates
The normal mean particle size of these aggregates is between 40 and 50 m, with a range of 0
1 to 100 m

Contact Us